Dibaba took more than five seconds off the previous mark of 14:24:37 set by her compatriot Meseret Defar on the same track in 2009.
In 2014, Dibaba set world records indoors over 1500m and 3000m as well as a world best over two miles.
It was a solo run in the Swedish capital for Dibaba on Thursday.
Helped by pacemakers Katarzyna Broniatowska and Tamara Tverdostup, she finished more than a minute in front of her nearest rival over 25 laps of the Globe Arena.
A distant second was her fellow Ethiopian, Birtukan Fente, in 15:22.56.
There were also world-leading marks in the men’s 1500m with Germany’s Homiyu Tesfaye running a national record 3:34.13, and also the women’s long jump, which saw Canada’s Christabel Nettey leap a national record 6.99m.